The RSS’s notion of education imparted in the Shishumandir and Shakha bears noticeable influence of Plato’s education system. [l] First there were the false myths, like those based on stories of gods subject to passions and sufferings, because reason teaches that God is perfect. Reviewing editions of papyri for the Republic in 1987, Slings suggests that the use of papyri is hampered due to some poor editing practices. Yes, indeed, he said: according to present notions the proposal would be thought ridiculous. In timocracy the ruling class is made up primarily of those with a warrior-like character. Plato divided the citizen into three categories and designed their educational system differently for his just society.  While recalling a moral lesson about frugal living Seneca mentions the meaning of Plato's name: "His very name was given him because of his broad chest. A large part of the Republic then addresses how the educational system should be set up to produce these philosopher kings. The 2003 Oxford Classical Texts edition by Slings even cites the Coptic translation of a fragment of the Republic in the Nag Hammadi library as evidence. During the early Renaissance, the Greek language and, along with it, Plato's texts were reintroduced to Western Europe by Byzantine scholars. Socrates was not a family man, and saw himself as the son of his mother, who was apparently a midwife. The students selected for higher education are taught dialectics – the philosophical journey into the invisible, intellible world of ideas — for the next five years. In cognitivism theory, learning occurs when the student reorganises information, either by finding new explanations or adapting old ones. One wants to look what one is not – the eternal contradiction of essence and appearance. Plato says these people should be like a dog obedient and kind to their master and harsh on strangers. The charioteer is a symbol of intellectual and logical part of the soul (logistikon), and two horses represents the moral virtues (thymoeides) and passionate instincts (epithymetikon), respectively, to illustrate the conflict between them. In the dialogues of Plato though, Socrates sometimes seems to support a mystical side, discussing reincarnation and the mystery religions, this is generally attributed to Plato. , Jowett mentions in his Appendix to Menexenus, that works which bore the character of a writer were attributed to that writer even when the actual author was unknown. The early exposure is quite important in building up of the mindset and Plato seeks to expose children only to the good aspects of society and God. In several of Plato's dialogues, Socrates promulgates the idea that knowledge is a matter of recollection of the state before one is born, and not of observation or study. The first stage (20-30 years)In this stage the students are given scientific education, which Plato, in his theory of knowledge diagram marks as the realm of understanding. Charmides and his guardian Critias are present for the discussion in the Protagoras. "The time is not long after the death of Socrates; for the Pythagoreans [Echecrates & co.] have not heard any details yet". Plato’s philosophy of education strives to achieve all that Plato is concerned with: a functioning just state and eudaimonia. Two dialogues Phaedo and Symposium also begin in dramatic form but then proceed to virtually uninterrupted narration by followers of Socrates. Children internalize these values of hierarchical relations of ‘discipline’ and obedience as the natural and the righteous way. While most people take the objects of their senses to be real if anything is, Socrates is contemptuous of people who think that something has to be graspable in the hands to be real. Socrates is attempting to make an image of a rightly ordered human, and then later goes on to describe the different kinds of humans that can be observed, from tyrants to lovers of money in various kinds of cities. A philosopher has the moderate love for wisdom and the courage to act according to wisdom. , Aristotle attributes a different doctrine with respect to Forms to Plato and Socrates. In Plato's dialogues, Socrates and his company of disputants had something to say on many subjects, including several aspects of metaphysics. Leo Strauss notes that Socrates' reputation for irony casts doubt on whether Plato's Socrates is expressing sincere beliefs. He says that his quest to resolve the riddle of the oracle put him at odds with his fellow man, and that this is the reason he has been mistaken for a menace to the city-state of Athens. It is generally agreed that the main purpose for Plato in using myths was didactic.  The Academy operated until it was destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 84 BC. Karl Popper, on the other hand, claims that dialectic is the art of intuition for "visualising the divine originals, the Forms or Ideas, of unveiling the Great Mystery behind the common man's everyday world of appearances.". The works are usually grouped into Early (sometimes by some into Transitional), Middle, and Late period. That means one of the aims of education is to train the mind to remain in touch with the theory and practice both.  The grammarian Apollodorus of Athens in his Chronicles argues that Plato was born in the 88th Olympiad. In some Sanskrit maxims, he is equated with God. Let us start with a bold statement that it is necessary to realise that many ancient scholars provided us with the knowledge that has been far beyond our imagination for hundreds of years. "Platonism" and its theory of Forms (or theory of Ideas) denies the reality of the material world, considering it only an image or copy of the real world. It is to be noted that though the reasoning is the philosophical basis of Plato’s political theory, there is hint that apart from censored music and gymnastics, nothing is taught in which the students have scope for application of reasoning abilities. The very notion of a child, we now realize, is bothhistorically and culturally conditioned. Let me conclude this discussion with a long quotation from dialogues between Socrates and Glaucon. Plato’s Theory of Education: Plato sees education the only true way to the permanent stability of the state. The wildness of passions is calmed down by the rhythms and the harmonies and fills the minds of the youth with a sense of conviction to justice.“When the modes of the music change, the fundamental laws of the state always change with them”. This is the main thesis of Socrates in the Republic, that the most wisdom the masses can muster is the wise choice of a ruler.. Some of Plato's most famous doctrines are contained in the Republic as well as in the Laws and the Statesman. A probably had an initial volume containing the first 7 tetralogies which is now lost, but of which a copy was made, Codex Venetus append. His student Aristotle was so upset that questions Plato’s wisdom of giving away the enslavement of women with one stroke of pen, which has been a historic achievement of mankind. Ish Mishra, Associate Professor, Dept. In the second stage the gymnastic is added to the music for the simultaneous development of body also along with the soul. But the problem arise when they confront the existing reality that does not consist of only virtues but vices also, they are not taught how to deal with them.  Perictione was sister of Charmides and niece of Critias, both prominent figures of the Thirty Tyrants, known as the Thirty, the brief oligarchic regime (404–403 BC), which followed on the collapse of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC).  Cornell University Press has also begun the Agora series of English translations of classical and medieval philosophical texts, including a few of Plato's.. According to him, sailing and health are not things that everyone is qualified to practice by nature. Plato further argues that such understanding of forms produces and ensures the good communal life when ideally structured under a philosopher king in a society with three classes (philosophers kings, guardians and workers) that neatly mirror his triadic view of the individual soul (reason, spirit and appetite).  It may seem that Plato, being a disciple of Socrates and a strong partisan of philosophy based on logos, should have avoided the use of myth-telling. Not the state centered. Mohr, Richard D. Plato never presents himself as a participant in any of the dialogues, and with the exception of the Apology, there is no suggestion that he heard any of the dialogues firsthand. , Many have interpreted Plato as stating—even having been the first to write—that knowledge is justified true belief, an influential view that informed future developments in epistemology. From the above discussion we can conclude that Plato’s education system is an aristocratic system aimed at maintaining the strict class division of the rulers and the ruled and training the philosophers to rule over the majority of the producers.  The brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon are mentioned in the Republic as sons of Ariston, and presumably brothers of Plato, though some have argued they were uncles. to provide exposure and create conducive ambience for the free realization of its nature by the mind. Consequently, then, he used the myth to convey the conclusions of the philosophical reasoning. Those, who prove their worth in handling the tough tasks working on these positions, become philosopher kings/queens, at the age of 50. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, consequently also controls at the same time the means of mental production, so that the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it. In Plato's dialogues, Socrates always insists on his ignorance and humility, that he knows nothing, so called Socratic irony. , Ambrose believed that Plato met Jeremiah in Egypt and was influenced by his ideas. It is not a political treatise, as those who merely judge books by their title think, but it is the finest, most beautiful work on education …  Chronology was not a consideration in ancient times, in that groupings of this nature are virtually absent (Tarrant) in the extant writings of ancient Platonists. (1997): "Introduction". With this conviction, Plato starts to emphasize the importance of education in his ideal state. In ancient India, there were two competing education educational systems.  A variety of sources have given accounts of his death. Socrates' ideas are also not consistent within or between or among dialogues. " Simplicius quotes Alexander of Aphrodisias, who states that "according to Plato, the first principles of everything, including the Forms themselves are One and Indefinite Duality (ἡ ἀόριστος δυάς), which he called Large and Small (τὸ μέγα καὶ τὸ μικρόν)", and Simplicius reports as well that "one might also learn this from Speusippus and Xenocrates and the others who were present at Plato's lecture on the Good". The theory of Forms is first introduced in the Phaedo dialogue (also known as On the Soul), wherein Socrates refutes the pluralism of the likes of Anaxagoras, then the most popular response to Heraclitus and Parmenides, while giving the "Opposites Argument" in support of the Forms. The inward/outward looking nature of the field of philosophy ofeducation alluded to above makes the task of delineating the field, ofgiving an over-all picture of the intellectual landscape, somewhatcomplicated (for a detailed account of this topography, see Phillips1985, 2010). Aristotle claimed that the philosophy of Plato closely followed the teachings of the Pythagoreans, and Cicero repeats this claim: "They say Plato learned all things Pythagorean. It imparted the education of conformity; conformity withthe established Brahmanical hierarchical social order. Throughout his later life, Plato became entangled with the politics of the city of Syracuse. According to Seneca, Plato died at the age of 81 on the same day he was born. He is against cures of illness as in his opinion death is preferable over living with illness. It appears to have undergone corrections by Arethas himself. , It is, however, said that Plato once disclosed this knowledge to the public in his lecture On the Good (Περὶ τἀγαθοῦ), in which the Good (τὸ ἀγαθόν) is identified with the One (the Unity, τὸ ἕν), the fundamental ontological principle. The original lecture was delivered in Hindi and the event was organized by Punashcha, the Indian People’s Theater Association (IPTA) and Koshish. However, as Debra Nails argues, the text does not state that Plato left for Megara immediately after joining Cratylus and Hermogenes. In ancient primitive societies, those considered to be knowledgeable were entrusted with positions like priest or commander and consulted about righteousness of particular views or acts. , A significant distinction of the early Plato and the later Plato has been offered by scholars such as E.R. Emphasis is on mathematics and not wrongly as it trains our mind for clear thinking; reasoning; logic and analysis. It is done through education lasting up to the age of philosophers. – discuss], More broadly, platonism (sometimes distinguished from Plato's particular view by the lowercase) refers to the view that there are many abstract objects. Strauss' political approach was in part inspired by the appropriation of Plato and Aristotle by medieval Jewish and Islamic political philosophers, especially Maimonides and Al-Farabi, as opposed to the Christian metaphysical tradition that developed from Neoplatonism. He considered education to be sure cure of the all ills of the society. Plato’s Education Theory The philosophy. However, he repeatedly does support the idea that there are Forms of artifacts, e. g. the Form of Bed. , Parmenides adopted an altogether contrary vision, arguing for the idea of changeless Being and the view that change is an illusion. JM Cooper (Stuart Professor of Philosophy, Princeton University, 1997); DS Hutchinson. The Protagoras contains the largest gathering of Socratic associates. Notable Western philosophers have continued to draw upon Plato's work since that time. As mentioned earlier, Plato does not consider the knowledge acquired from the scientific education as real knowledge but only understanding. Plato's Academy mosaic was created in the villa of T. Siminius Stephanus in Pompeii, around 100 BC to 100 CE. In other words, the Forms are universals given as a solution to the problem of universals, or the problem of "the One and the Many", e. g. how one predicate "red" can apply to many red objects. Etc.  In democracy, the state bears resemblance to ancient Athens with traits such as equality of political opportunity and freedom for the individual to do as he likes. Education for Plato was one of the great things of life. Appendix 10-Plato: http:en.wikipedia.orgwikiPlato. One story is that the name of the Academy comes from the ancient hero, Academus; still another story is that the name came from a supposed former owner of the plot of land, an Athenian citizen whose name was (also) Academus; while yet another account is that it was named after a member of the army of Castor and Pollux, an Arcadian named Echedemus. Just as shadows are temporary, inconsequential epiphenomena produced by physical objects, physical objects are themselves fleeting phenomena caused by more substantial causes, the ideals of which they are mere instances. 7, with siglum W, with a supposed date in the twelfth century. Buddhist tradition was a revolutionary, dialectical system of debate-discussion, and democratic discourse. In the Apology, Socrates says Aristophanes slandered him in a comic play, and blames him for causing his bad reputation, and ultimately, his death. Eudoxus of Cnidus, the greatest mathematician in Classical Greece, who contributed much of what is found in Euclid's Elements, was taught by Archytas and Plato. For example, Socrates praises the wisdom of Euthyphro many times in the Cratylus, but makes him look like a fool in the Euthyphro. These value systems have reference source/sources for the validation human acts and opinions. Cooper. Sparta was a military aristocracy and had a state controlled education system that imparted mainly military education and discipline. Aside from being immutable, timeless, changeless, and one over many, the Forms also provide definitions and the standard against which all instances are measured. phil. The exercises not only keep the body fit but also help in building the moral character, as its final goal. , Protagoras is often considered one of the last of the "early dialogues". These works are labelled as Notheuomenoi ("spurious") or Apocrypha. How is it determined and realized? This is emphasised within the Republic as Socrates describes the event of mutiny on board a ship. “First of all, I said, there was that greatest of all lies in high places, which the poet told about Uranus, and which was a bad lie too,–I mean what Hesiod says that Uranus did, and how Cronus retaliated on him. Said to have returned to Athens at the age of forty, Plato founded one of the earliest known organized schools in Western Civilization on a plot of land in the Grove of Hecademus or Academus.  But there is only one inscription of an Aristocles, an early archon of Athens in 605/4 BC. The philosophic soul according to Socrates has reason, will, and desires united in virtuous harmony. Not only it has historically played role of ideological apparatus but also of revolutionary changes, depending on the character of education .Plato realized this with his experiences during the 12 years of wandering after Socrates’s execution in BC 399. The text as presented is usually not much different from what appears in the Byzantine manuscripts, and papyri and testimonia just confirm the manuscript tradition. The 1578 edition of Plato's complete works published by Henricus Stephanus (Henri Estienne) in Geneva also included parallel Latin translation and running commentary by Joannes Serranus (Jean de Serres). " Such secrecy is necessary in order not "to expose them to unseemly and degrading treatment". There is no scope here of comparison between Platonic and RSS education systems, which is subject matter of separate discussion. In England, women got full citizenship rightsonly in 1929 after a prolonged feminist struggle and scholarship, beginning with Mary Wollstonecraft, in the last quarter 18th century. There is no scope to go into details of his treatment of various disciplines.  More explicitly, Plato himself argues in the Timaeus that knowledge is always proportionate to the realm from which it is gained. Theory and practice both, according to him,are products of mind, even state is product of mind. In “Laws’ he says repeatedly: “Education is the first and the fairest thing that the best of men can ever have”. Plato talks about social justice and individual justice and the just individual is creation of an appropriate and hence just education. In the modern history, beginning from fascist onslaught of poets and activist, progressive poets and intellectuals, via cruel McCarthyism to thecontemporary Neo-McCarthyism of the neo-liberal age, dissenting views are cruelly crushed under the pretext of anti-nationalism.Most recent demonstration of Platonian apprehension is, the ruthless suppression of intellectuals with dissenting voices through extra-constitutional forces of ‘Hindutva’ terror groups and the constitutional coercive apparatuses of the state, since the inception of the present RSS supported BJP government. If Plato's important dialogues do not refer to Socrates' execution explicitly, they allude to it, or use characters or themes that play a part in it. But unlike Plato, it does not allow women in its scheme. The Nuremberg Chronicle depicts Plato and other as anachronistic schoolmen. , Due to a lack of surviving accounts, little is known about Plato's early life and education. In simple words, Plato has stressed a lot on the … Socrates elicits a fact concerning a geometrical construction from a slave boy, who could not have otherwise known the fact (due to the slave boy's lack of education). Plato on education. Such ideas of the past must be strictly censored. ), Hermann, Arnold (Ed.) This is done by habituating them to think into just one way, perceived to be the righteous way, by designers of course-curriculum or the teacher. Plato’s priority for education can be easily understood as half of the space of the Republic is devoted to education. The Great Books of the Western World.  With the exception of the Theaetetus, Plato gives no explicit indication as to how these orally transmitted conversations came to be written down. http://ishmishra.blogspot.com/2015/09/the-higher-education.html, http://ishmishra.blogspot.com/2016/05/blog-post_22.html,  A note on Gramsci’s incarceration judgment,  A note and http://ishmishra.blogspot.com/2012/07/the-specter-of-naxalism-neo-mccarthyism.html,  A note and ईश मिश्र, राष्ट्र–राज्य और राष्ट्रवाद, समयांतर, जनवरी, 2018, also in http://ishmishra.blogspot.com/2017/12/blog-post_24.html,  Ish Mishra,https://countercurrents.org/2017/09/17/protagoras-490-420-bc/,  Two of the multitude of the Gods (a note ). All the communities create their language; idioms and phrases; Gods and Goddesses according to their historical needs and divine order in their own image. It is possible that Plato and Socrates took part in the Eleusinian Mysteries.. Out of the huge population only a very few have the potentiality and ability to know the Idea of good. Plato divides the education into two parts – elementary and higher. Thirty-five dialogues and thirteen letters (the Epistles) have traditionally been ascribed to Plato, though modern scholarship doubts the authenticity of at least some of these. Socrates twice compares the relationship of the older man and his boy lover to the father-son relationship, and in the Phaedo, Socrates' disciples, towards whom he displays more concern than his biological sons, say they will feel "fatherless" when he is gone. The Brahmanical Gurkulsystem, an authoritarian system of instruction in which the Guru (teacher) was beyond question. As can be inferred from the above discussion, the theory of ideal state is the logical corollary the theory of justice and hence by implication, so is the theory of education, one of the two pillars of the edifice of the ideal state, the other being, the theory of communism. Let them fashion the mind with such tales, even more fondly than they mold the body with their hands; but most of those which are now in use must be discarded.”The present fiction writers or poets who do not sing the prescribed tune shall be banished or denied platform for performance. While it has not survived to the present day, all the extant medieval Greek manuscripts are based on his edition. Dionysius II seemed to accept Plato's teachings, but he became suspicious of Dion, his uncle. Some of Plato's myths were based in traditional ones, others were modifications of them, and finally he also invented altogether new myths. It is relayed in the dialogues Apology, Crito, and Phaedo. And I thought that the word of Phoebus, being divine and full of prophecy, would not fail. …… . “The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.e. The fifth regular solid, the dodecahedron, was supposed to be the element which made up the heavens. That is the realm of education was family centered. Contemporary platonism also tends to view abstract objects as unable to cause anything, but it is unclear whether the ancient Platonists felt this way. "Form of the Good", or more literally "the idea of the good" (ἡ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ ἰδέα) is a concept in the philosophy of Plato. A reason for not revealing it to everyone is partially discussed in Phaedrus where Plato criticizes the written transmission of knowledge as faulty, favouring instead the spoken logos: "he who has knowledge of the just and the good and beautiful ... will not, when in earnest, write them in ink, sowing them through a pen with words, which cannot defend themselves by argument and cannot teach the truth effectually. The individuals composing the ruling class possess among other things consciousness, and therefore think. (Ed. In several dialogues by Plato, the character Socrates presents the view that each soul … A ring which could make one invisible, the Ring of Gyges is proposed in the Republic by the character of Glaucon, and considered by the rest of characters for its ethical consequences, whether an individual possessing it would be most happy abstaining or doing injustice. In the Apology, Socrates tries to dismiss rumours that he is a sophist and defends himself against charges of disbelief in the gods and corruption of the young.  In the Meno, one of the men who brings legal charges against Socrates, Anytus, warns him about the trouble he may get into if he does not stop criticizing important people. There is no record of a line from Aristocles to Plato's father, Ariston. Like his theory of communism, the theory of education is also a logical corollary of the theory of ideal state that he theoretically constructs for his central concern of the justice. There is no scope of detailed discussion on the history of knowledge; I have dealt with it, elsewhere. Apology is Socrates' defence speech, and Crito and Phaedo take place in prison after the conviction.  During this first trip Dionysius's brother-in-law, Dion of Syracuse, became one of Plato's disciples, but the tyrant himself turned against Plato.  Another tradition suggests Plato died at a wedding feast. Deeply influenced by Nietzsche and Heidegger, Strauss nonetheless rejects their condemnation of Plato and looks to the dialogues for a solution to what all three latter day thinkers acknowledge as 'the crisis of the West.
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