what did kosmoceratops eat

Since much of the skeleton was still under preparation at the time, researchers were unable to examine it for signs of predation and scavenging. Kosmoceratops is a genus of herbivorous chasmosaurine ceratopsian dinosaur, which lived during the Late Cretaceous period.Kosmoceratops is distinguished by an ornate skull, the most ornate of any known dinosaur. Kosmoceratops is a genus of herbivorous chasmosaurine ceratopsian dinosaur, which lived during the Late Cretaceous period (late Campanian, 74-65 mya) in the part of the island continent Laramidia that is now Utah, United States. The coprolites contained fragments of angiosperm wood (which indicates a diet of woody browse); though there was previously little evidence of dinosaurs consuming angiosperms, these coprolites showed that dinosaurs adapted to feeding on them (they only became common in the Early Cretaceous, diversifying in the Late Cretaceous). Sampson and colleagues considered it more likely that there had been a paleoclimatic or paleoenvironmental barrier to dispersal (an idea supported by divergent types of pollen in northern and southern Laramidia), but noted that more evidence is needed to investigate the nature of separation between faunal provinces in Laramidia. There are a total of 15 horns on the skull, the most of any known ceratopsian. Quick and Interesting Facts About Kosmoceratops. Since the two clades overlapped geographically during the uppermost part of the middle Campanian, the speciation event that led to the two lineages may have been caused by latitudinal vicariance prior to the appearance of the first member of the Chasmosaurus lineage, 77 million years ago. The stratigraphic ranges of Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops show that they lived at the same time and likely in the same ecosystems, which was rare among ceratopsids. The bone tissue had a high number of osteocytes (bone cells) as well as a dense network of blood vessels, including radially oriented vascular canals (blood canals running towards the bone interior), indicating sustained rapid growth. They rejected the idea of dinosaur endemism and provinciality because of problems with sampling biases (the impression that dinosaurs diversified during the Campanian is a result of the denser fossil record from this time), a lack of topographic barriers that would divide provinces (Gates and colleagues had supposedly misunderstood the topographic effects of orogeny on Laramidia), a lack of significant climatic or vegetational differences, the taxonomic decisions that have been involved in the perception of the idea, the diachroneity (difference in age) of most fossil assemblages preventing their use in biogeographic analyses, and that the conclusions of those that support the idea are not uniform and undermine their arguments. The narial strut of the premaxilla (that extended from the bottom of the nasal cavity to the top) was also inclined hindward, a feature also seen in Anchiceratops and Arrhinoceratops, and the narial process that projected backwards and up from the premaxilla was a triangular prong. Ridgwell pointed out that the dental anatomies of ceratopsians and hadrosaurs (with dental batteries comprising continuously replaced teeth) were adapted to process large quantities of fibrous plants. The Kosmoceratops was related to the Triceratops, and … They pointed out that in contrast to the Maastrichtian, the preceding Campanian stage had a better sampled, diverse, and far-ranging dinosaur assemblage, as well as more precise geographical and stratigraphical data. That Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops were not closely related to each other or to Chasmosaurus and Mojoceratops from the coeval Dinosaur Park Formation, and that Vagaceratops from Alberta overlapped with Pentaceratops from New Mexico in time, were cited by Sampson and colleagues as evidence against the claim that northern and southern dinosaur assemblages were not coeval during this time. The Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops bones sampled by Levitt did not show evidence of lines of arrested growth (annual growth lines), and compared with the ceratopsids Pachyrhinosaurus, Centrosaurus, and Einosaurus from further north which did have growth lines, this may indicate that bone growth reacted to climate and that Kosmoceratops and Utahceratops could sustain their growth throughout the year due to their more equitable southern climate. [44] After concluding in 2014 that Vagaceratops was more closely related to Chasmosaurus than Kosmoceratops, Campbell suggested that Vagaceratops originated in northern Laramidia. The giant plant-eaters were inhabitants of the “lost continent” of Laramidia, formed when a shallow sea flooded the central … Tyrannosaurus … Kosmoceratops was a ceratopsid dinosaur that lived in what is now the U.S. state of Utah about 76.4–75.5 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous. The forward-curving epiparietals had prominent sulci (grooves), and their bases were coalesced. .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%;line-height:inherit}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.7em;padding:0 0.15em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;border-bottom:1px solid;white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-fixed-width{overflow:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-fixed-width:hover{overflow:visible}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label.first{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{padding:0 0.15em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center;border-left:1px solid;white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel:hover{overflow:visible}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.last{border-left:none;border-right:none}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel.reverse{border-left:none;border-right:1px solid}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em;position:relative}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar.reverse{text-align:right;position:relative}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf.reverse{text-align:right}.mw-parser-output table.clade:hover span.linkA{background-color:yellow}.mw-parser-output table.clade:hover span.linkB{background-color:green}, In 2020, Fowler and Fowler described two new chasmosaurine genera, and suggested the subfamily had a deep evolutionary split between a clade containing Chasmosaurus and its closest relatives, and Pentaceratops and its relatives. 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